Mеждународна организация по миграция


 Mediterranean statistics update

Posted: 11/13/18

Themes: Humanitarian Emergencies, Missing Migrants

Geneva – IOM, the UN Migration Agency, reports that 102,611 migrants and refugees entered Europe by sea in 2018 through 11 November, including 49,912 to Spain, the region’s most active destination point this year, with just under 49 per cent of all 2018 arrivals. This marks the fifth straight year arrivals of irregular migrants and refugees have topped the 100,000 benchmark – although in all previous years that arrival threshold was reached earlier in the year.

The 102,611 arrivals through 315 days of 2018 compares with total arrivals reported for 2017 at this same time last year of 156,372, and of 341,215 in 2016. Deaths on the Mediterranean in 2018 now stand at 2,043, compared with 3,001 a year ago, and 4,329 in 2016.


IOM Italy’s Flavio Di Giacomo reported Monday Italian authorities have released data on the nationalities of those arriving by sea from North Africa through the end of October. The largest single sending country continues to be Tunisia, with almost 5,000 arrivals – almost all of whom are thought to be arriving in Italy directly from their own country.

Among the main arrivals coming from Libya are two from the Horn of Africa – Eritreans and Sudanese – and, from West Africa, citizens of Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire and Nigeria – all of those in numbers considerably below those posted in previous years (see chart below). Pakistan, Algeria and Iraq were also among the leading sender nations.


IOM Libya reported this week that the total number of vulnerable migrants rescued or intercepted at sea by the Libyan Coast Guard through the end of October was 14,377 – or close to the number (14,349) who have agreed to Voluntary Humanitarian Return departures from Libya since the start of the year.

IOM Libya also reported this week that during the last two weeks of October the organization’s staff had been able to assist 1,600 migrants in four different Libyan detention centres, and 93 more at disembarkation points along the Libyan coast.


IOM Spain’s Ana Dodevska reported Monday total arrivals at sea in 2018 have reached 49,912 men, women and children who have been rescued in Western Mediterranean waters through 11 November (see charts below).

The land arrivals to Ceuta and Melillahave remained the same since the last update.

Missing Migrants Project reported three more people died or were lost at sea in the Western Mediterranean. Spanish authorities recovered the bodies of two Moroccans, one of them believed to be a minor, from a boat that reached Spain’s province of Málaga on 10 November. Authorities believe 13 others survived the journey. That same day, the body of a young man washed up on San Amaro beach in Ceuta, Spain’s enclave in North Africa. Initial police investigations indicate he was a resident of Ceuta’s migrant temporary stay centre (known as the “CETI,” Centro de Estancia Temporal de Inmigrantes, or Centre for Temporary Residence of Immigrants), who drowned while attempting to reach the Spanish mainland.

Last week, a boat carrying between 43 and 46 migrants from Morocco capsized off the coast of Cádiz, causing the deaths of at least 21 people. So far, the remains of 18 people have been located at sea or have washed up on the shore of Caños de Meca, with five bodies recovered on 12 November. The Missing Migrants Project team estimates that 55 people have drowned in the Western Mediterranean while attempting to reach Spain since the beginning of the month.


IOM Greece’s Christine Nikolaidou reported on Monday that over this past weekend a four-year-old Iraqi boy lost his life in a car accident in Northern Greece on Friday evening. He was one of more than two dozen migrants in a minivan involved in an accident with a truck on the Egnatia Highway in Vrasna, 80km east of Thessaloniki, Greece. IOM Greece said the youngster was one of four minors in the vehicle, and reported 27 people were injured, including two Iraqis who are believed to be smugglers. According to Greek authorities, migrants being transported were from Somalia, Bangladesh and Iraq.

Further research through the day Monday revealed Friday’s accident was the eighth fatal vehicle accident involving irregular migrants since early March, and the fourth to occur near the town of Kavala, on northern Greece’s main highway linking its second largest city, Thessaloniki, with the Greece-Turkey border. A total of 25 individuals have died this year in such crashes, and 71 injured (see chart below).

Besides Friday’s vehicle accident, there were reports in the Eastern Mediterranean of a boat capsizing in the early hours of 12 November, a boat in which 15 people from Afghanistan (including four women and their children) were trying to reach the Greek island of Lesvos. That vessel reportedly capsized off the coast of Dikili, Turkey. Two Afghan men managed to swim to shore and alert Turkish authorities. A search and rescue operation has been launched and is underway to search for the 13 missing migrants.

IOM analysts say the vast majority of irregular migrants enter northern Greece through the Greek–Turkish borders in Evros, and their initial goal is to go to a big city, mainly to Thessaloniki or Athens. Their next steps – and their ultimate destinations – tend to be at the discretion of the smuggling networks they use. Almost every accident happens after a high-speed car chase with a police vehicle. Sources tell IOM smugglers usually employ underage migrants as drivers, usually youths of 15 to 17 years old. They tell these children that they cannot be arrested because of their age.

Deaths on the European mainland occur at a rate of about two per week, and highway accidents are a common migration hazard.  So far this year 90 migrants have died crossing Europe, compared with 97 through all of 2017, 63 in 2016 and 136 in 2015 – a total of 387, with about 20 per cent occurring in Greece (82).  Deaths in Greece this year account for more than half of all migrant fatalities on the continent, and half of those deaths occurred in cars (see chart below).

IOM Greece’s Antigoni Avgeropoulou said that from Friday (9 November) to mid-day Monday, the Hellenic Coast Guard (HCG) reported there were at least seven incidents requiring search and rescue operations off the port of Alexandroupolis and the islands of Lesvos, Samos and Leros. The HCG rescued a total of 242 migrants and transferred them to the respective islands.

Those arrivals – plus others off Chios, Farmakonisi, Symi, Rhodes, Kos – bring to 28,252 the total number of arrivals by sea to Greece through 7 November (see chart below).


Dimitrios Tsagalas of IOM Cyprus reported Monday the arrival over the weekend of 33 irregular migrants entering the Republic at the Ledra Palace location. One was reportedly a Kurd of Iraqi nationality, the rest all Syrians: 14 men, five women and 13 children. With these arrivals, Tsagalas said the total number of migrants or refugees arriving in Cyprus this year now is 729.

One more landing took place on Monday that is not included in the total above. IOM’s Mr. Tsagalas on Tuesday reported another boat was spotted off Cape Greco by the Coast Guard in the Famagusta area Monday afternoon. On board were 12 adult males, one woman and four children, all believed to be of Syrian nationality. With this boat the latest 2018 arrival total is 746.


IOM’s western Balkans team reported on Thursday some 2,537 irregular migrants have been registered in Albania, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the first two weeks of October, seven times more than the 357 registered during the whole October 2017 and close to the overall number of migrants and refugees registered in the respective countries between January and December 2017 (2,272).

IOM reports 74 per cent of migrants were registered in Bosnia and Herzegovina, where, since the beginning of the year, authorities reported 18,628 new irregular migrants – 16 times more than the 1,166 registered in the whole of 2017. Part of the migrants and refugees who arrived in Bosnia and Herzegovina did so after spending a certain amount of time in Serbia, Greece and Turkey (see chart below).

However, for a better understanding of the scale of the movement, it would be worth mentioning that total arrivals to Bosnia this year are almost half of the overall land and sea arrivals registered in Greece in the respective period (38,797). According to the available information on nationalities, one third of migrants registered in Bosnia are Pakistani nationals (34%), followed by those from the Islamic Republic of Iran (16%), the Syrian Arab Republic (12%), Iraq (9%) and more than 64 different nationality groups.

In Albania and Montenegro, Syrian nationals comprised the majority (53% and 44% respectively), followed by those who arrived from Pakistan (18% and 12% respectively), Algeria and Iraq (both 8%) in Montenegro, and Iraq (9%) in Albania. The differences in the nationality structure of registered migrants between the three countries are explained by the fact that migrants in Bosnia and Herzegovina also enter from Serbia (especially migrants from the Islamic Republic of Iran and Pakistan) and that certain groups of migrants from Montenegro continue not only toward Bosnia and Herzegovina but toward Serbia as well.

Available Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) flow monitoring data for Serbia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia also indicate increased movement of irregular migrants to/through these countries. Between January and 17 October 2018, there were 6,291 newly registered migrants in the reception centres across Serbia. This is a 28 per cent increase compared to the 4,554 registered in the same period last year, and slightly more than the 5,676 registered in the whole of 2017.

More than half of all registered migrants in Serbia as of 30 September declared Pakistani origin (58%), another 12 per cent were from the Islamic Republic of Iran, followed by nine per cent of migrants from Afghanistan, six per cent from Iraq and six per cent of Bangladeshi nationals.

In the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, authorities reported the arrival of 2,846 irregular migrants as of 17 October, five times the 547 reported in the whole of 2017. Available information on nationalities, as of end of September, indicates that the Islamic Republic of Iran is the most commonly reported origin country declared by 56 per cent of the registered migrants. Afghan nationals comprise another 11 per cent, Pakistani nationals, 10 per cent and Iraqi, six per cent.


Worldwide, IOM’s Missing Migrants Project reported Monday that 3,190 people have died or gone missing on migratory routes across the globe in 2018 (see chart below).

Beyond the Mediterranean this week MMP also reported five migrants were killed on the Iraq-Turkey border, and 16 more were injured in a vehicle accident near Saray, in Turkey’s eastern province of Van. No information regarding the country of origin, sex or age of the deceased was released by Turkish authorities.

Missing Migrants Project data are compiled by IOM staff but come from a variety of sources, some of which are unofficial. To learn more about how data on migrants’ deaths and disappearances are collected, click here.

For latest arrivals and fatalities in the Mediterranean, please visit: http://migration.iom.int/europe
Learn more about the Missing Migrants Project at: http://missingmigrants.iom.int


 2017 Counter-trafficking statistics snapshot

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Spotlight on the Mediterranean

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Migrants presence

62,418 present migrants and refugees 

in Greece, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Cyprus, and Romania

Updates as of 15 August 2018


Country Number of present migrants Date of last recorded present migrants
Greece 56,549  25 April 2018 
the FYR of Macedonia 112  15 August 2018 
Serbia 3,227  15 August 2018 
Croatia​​​​​​​​​​​* 380  15 August 2018 
Slovenia* 279  18 July 2018 
Bulgaria​​ 948  15 August 2018 
Hungary​ 136  15 August 2018 
Cyprus​* 394  8 August 2018 
Romania 393  15 August 2018 


Please note: Location-level data currently unavailable for Greece.

*​​​ Number of asylum seekers.

Data Sources: National Authorities, IOM and UNHCR

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Relocated migrants

34,694 people relocated in 24 countries

22,005 from Greece 
12,689 from Italy

Latest figures

(updates as of 30 April 2018)

Member State From Greece From Italy Total
Austria 0 43 43
Belgium 700 471 1,171
Bulgaria 50 10 60
Croatia 60 22 82
Cyprus 96 47 143
Czech Republic 12 0 12
Estonia 141 6 147
Finland 1,202 778 1,980
France 4,400 635 5,035
Germany 5,391 5,434 10,825
Ireland 1,022 0 1,022
Latvia  294 34 328
Liechtenstein 10 0 10
Lithuania 355 29 384
Luxembourg 300 249 549
Malta 101 67 168
Netherlands 1,755 1,020 2,775
Norway 693 815 1,508
Portugal 1,192 356 1,548
Romania 683 45 728
Slovenia 172 81 253
Slovakia 16 0 16
Spain 1,124 235 1,359
Sweden 1,656 1,392 3,048
Switzerland 580 920 1,500
Total 22,005 12,689 34,694


Based on Commission proposals, the Justice and Home Affairs Council adopted in September 2015 two Decisions to relocate asylum seekers from Italy and Greece, to assist them in dealing with the pressures of the refugee crisis. Under the emergency relocation scheme, up to 106,000 asylum seekers with a high chance of having their applications successfully processed (EU average recognition rate of over 75%) were to be relocated from Greece and Italy, where they had arrived, to other Member States where they would have their asylum applications processed.

Between October 2015 and April 2018, IOM assisted the relocation of 34,694 persons in need of international protection with pre-departure health assessments, pre-departure orientation and movement management. A majority of them were male (63%), adults (68%), and of Syrian (52%), Eritrean (35%) and Iraqi (11%) nationality. The scheme also benefitted 585 unaccompanied or separated migrant children.

Due to the strict eligibility criteria, the changes in criteria during the implementation of the scheme, as well as the drop in arrivals to Greece and Italy during the project implementation, the number of assisted beneficiaries is considerably lower than the target of 106,000 persons. Almost all eligible persons registered in Greece and in Italy have been successfully relocated to another European state with the assistance of IOM.

Data source: IOM

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Transit routes

From January 2018, 79,043 people have been traveling to Europe through various transit routes across Africa, Asia or the Middle East.

In 2016 387,739 people traveled to Europe through various transit routes across Africa, Asia or the Middle East.

Statistics of arrivals for countries of first arrival in Europe

Arrivals to Bulgaria (Source: IOM and National Authorities): as of 26 Aug 2018

Cumulative Total (1 Jan 2015 until Date of Last Recorded Arrivals): 51,920
Date of Last Recorded Arrivals: 26 Aug 2018
Total 2018: 1,148
2018 by sea: 0
2018 by land: 1,148
Total 2017: 2,562
Total 2016: 17,187
Type: Country of first arrival in Europe

Arrivals to Greece (Source: IOM and National Authorities): as of 26 Aug 2018

Cumulative Total (1 Jan 2015 until Date of Last Recorded Arrivals): 1,097,235
Date of Last Recorded Arrivals: 26 Aug 2018
Total 2018: 27,914
2018 by sea: 18,529
2018 by land: 9,385
Total 2017: 35,052
Total 2016: 176,906
Type: Country of first arrival in Europe

Arrivals to Italy (Source: IOM and National Authorities): as of 26 Aug 2018

Cumulative Total (1 Jan 2015 until Date of Last Recorded Arrivals): 473,949
Date of Last Recorded Arrivals: 26 Aug 2018
Total 2018: 19,761
2018 by sea: 19,761
2018 by land: 0
Total 2017: 119,369
Total 2016: 181,436
Type: Country of first arrival in Europe

Arrivals to Malta (Source: IOM and National Authorities): as of 26 Aug 2018

Cumulative Total (1 Jan 2015 until Date of Last Recorded Arrivals): 349
Date of Last Recorded Arrivals: 26 Aug 2018
Total 2018: 714
2018 by sea: 714
2018 by land: 0
Total 2017: 0
Total 2016: 0
Type: Country of first arrival in Europe

Arrivals to Cyprus (Source: IOM and National Authorities): as of 26 Aug 2018

Cumulative Total (1 Jan 2015 until Date of Last Recorded Arrivals): 1,710
Date of Last Recorded Arrivals: 26 Aug 2018
Total 2018: 133
2018 by sea: 133
2018 by land: 0
Total 2017: 1,078
Total 2016: 345
Type: Country of first arrival in Europe

Arrivals to Spain (Source: IOM and National Authorities): as of 26 Aug 2018

Cumulative Total (1 Jan 2015 until Date of Last Recorded Arrivals): 91,931
Date of Last Recorded Arrivals: 26 Aug 2018
Total 2018: 32,376
2018 by sea: 27,994
2018 by land: 4,382
Total 2017: 28,707
Total 2016: 14,558
Type: Country of first arrival in Europe




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Violence against aid workers

Violence against aid workers in 2017
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